Energy makes our world work. We have
almost come to take it for granted. But lately you may have heard
people, and seen many newspapers and magazines discuss the ‘energy
crisis’. What is the problem? Why are people constantly wondering about
Let us show you how each of us has a part to play in tackling the
problem. And making the world a better place in the future.
What is Energy?
We constantly hear the word ‘energy’ in everyday life. We admire the
‘man with energy’. We eat ‘high energy foods’. Parents say their
children are ‘full of energy’. And so often we hear that the ‘world is
running out of energy’, that energy is precious, that it should not be
What does ‘energy’
The various forms of Energy:
The moving force of all machinery. They
do work by making wheels go round. Animal power and human energy are
also examples of mechanical energy.
The heat of exploding gases makes an
engine move forward. Blowing up a balloon with hot air, and letting it
go, is like how a jet engine works with heat energy!
Light Energy or
radiant energy, pouring out from the sun, sustains all green plants.
Radio waves, X-rays and ultra violet rays are also invisible forms of
The energy of food and fuels. Food keeps
us strong for work. The energy of oil, coal, wood and gas-released in
the form of hear-runs engines, keeps us warm.
This is associated with magnets and
electrical currents. It lights our homes; makes our gadgets work – at
the flick of a switch.
This is the energy from the nucleus of
an atom. It can be very dangerous (when used for A-bombs and H-bombs)
but also has very important uses if used for peaceful purposes (e.g.:
in power stations).
How Energy aids mankind
Energy has always been the key to man’s greatest goals, and to his
dreams of a better world. The caveman started on the path to
civilization when he discovered the energy in fire for that and light,
and utilized the energy in his body to hunt for food and survival.
Today, man has come a long, long way, and discovered innumerable ways
to make various forms of energy work for him.
This quest for finding new uses of energy has led to exciting
discoveries and inventions in fact; we cannot imagine a world without
Machinery in our factories and farms, electricity for lighting and
heating, petroleum to carry us places, nuclear power and solar power to
aid exciting futuristic programmes and inventions have all risen from
man’s interest in energy.
Our most important
Of all our energy sources, there is nothing so useful of versatile as
OIL or petroleum.
Hidden in vast reservoirs, deep under the earth, oil is considered the
prime source of energy all over the world. When you think of ‘OIL’ you
probably think of something to cook with, or something that keeps
But oil is much more than that. In its crude state- or basic form –oil
or petroleum is a dark black liquid, which is pumped out of the earth
and ‘refined’ – or separated into various forms of ‘oil’. Each of these
forms of ‘oil’ has countless uses – in our homes, on our roads, in our
farms, and in our factories.
OIL takes millions of
years to be made.
Oil lies trapped deep under the earth’s surface. How it got there is
Plants and animals that lived millions of years ago on earth died and
were covered with layers and layers of sand and rock, preserving their
energy within their cells.
Under pressure, these turned into dark liquid – ‘crude oil’.
Oil was first discovered by man when it seeped to the surface in small
quantities. As man began to discover uses for it – from medicines to
fiery weapons, to burning at temples-the demand for this marvellous
Today, gigantic oil wells with huge drilling bits bore deep through the
earth’s surface till they strike a store of gas and oil, floating on
water. Oil is made to gush out and collected in large quantities, from
where it is sent to the refinery.
Oil is sometimes found under the ocean bed too! This method of pumping
out oil is known as ‘off-shore drilling’.
Refining petroleum -
for a hundred different uses.
Heat and pressure is applied to the crude oil in varying degrees at
refineries – to squeeze every drop of usefulness from oil.
This separates oil into its various components such as: gas, petrol,
kerosene, diesel, lubricants, etc.
But… Precious oil is in short
Oil, like all natural resources can only be found in certain places: N.
America, USSR, Saudi Arabia, the Middle East and N. Africa are some of
the leading oil producing regions of the world.
India, unfortunately, has very little of its own oil…. hence we depend
greatly on what we get from other oil-rich nations.
And with oil becoming more and more difficult to locate all over the
world, it is also very expensive for our country to buy it.
Unfortunately, a lot is
The saddest thing is that after paying so much, a lot of people
carelessly waste this precious liquid.
In kitchens, gas and kerosene stoves sometimes burn unnecessarily. The
black smoke you see coming out of automobiles means a big waste of
petrol. In factories and farms, tonnes of precious oil are wasted
through bad working methods.
Oil will last much
If we all take a bit of care.
The world has been using up a lot of oil over the years. Will the day
come when there is no more oil under the earth?
That day may not be far away. But what we can do now, when we still
have this precious liquid, is to use it as carefully as we can.
In the kitchen: the pressure cooker, and other fuel-saving
methods help save gas and kerosene.
On the road: driving slowly and keeping vehicles in good condition save
precious petrol and diesel.
In fact, we can try and avoid using private vehicles as far as
possible, and think twice before each trip. Cycling costs not a drop of
In factories: thick black smoke, coming out of factory chimneys, is a
sure indicator of waste-and a problem of pollution too. Factory workers
can, with good techniques and an efficient work pattern, avoid a lot of
waste of oil.
In farms: a simple checklist on tractors and lift-irrigation pumps for
farmers can save valuable diesel.
You have seen how important oil is as a source of energy.
People all over the world have come to realize its value. And while the
search goes on for finding more of this precious liquid, scientists are
busy working on other sources of energy too.
But as long as people continue to waste our precious energy, all these
efforts are of little use. That is why CONSERVATION – or using
something without waste – is being popularized everywhere.
As you grow up, you too will be using various forms of energy
especially oil, everyday. And the sooner you make conservation a habit
Look around you: has somebody left the lights and fans on
unnecessarily? Is there something boiling over in the kitchen? Are
there any small errands you can do like walking or cycling down to the
store, rather than use a vehicle that consumes petrol? Yes, there are
many, many ways you too can help the world save energy.
Set up by the Government of India, Petroleum Conservation Research
Association is a registered society under the Ministry of Petroleum
& Natural Gas to promote conservation of petroleum products. Its
||To formulate strategies and
promote measures for accelerating conservation of petroleum products
leading to environment protection, energy and sustainable development;
||To create awareness among
masses about the importance, benefits and methods of conserving
petroleum products & clean environment by enhancing information and
||To promote research,
development and deployment efforts aimed at petroleum conservation
& environment protection, support & facilitate efforts for
adoption and dissemination of fuel efficient technologies and
substitution of petroleum products with alternate fuels and renewables;
||To establish synergistic
institutional linkages at the national & international levels in
the areas of petroleum conservation & environment protection;
||To provide training and
technical advisory services, designed to achieve economy &
efficiency in use of petroleum products for cleaner environment;
||To function as a “Think
Tank” to the Govt. of India for proposing policies and strategies on
petroleum conservation and environment protection aimed at reducing
excessive dependence on oil.
||Energy Audit & Diagnostic Studies in
small, medium and large industrial units.
||Empanelment of energy auditors.
||Soft loan schemes for improving energy
||Driver training programme.
||Model depots studies.
||Workshops for domestic consumers of
||Clinics for farmers through Agriculture
Extension Agencies, State Agriculture Departments and Universities.
||Installing BIS standards agriculture
irrigation pumpsets and rectification of inefficient diesel pumpsets
||Workshops on fuel conservation for fleet
operators and industries.
||Organizing National/ Regional/State
level Seminars on Petroleum Conservation.
||Conducting exhaust emission awareness
checks for petrol/diesel vehicles.
||Development of External Faculties for
promoting Oil Conservation.
||Oil Conservation awareness
campaign through mass media i.e. (Press, Cinema, Radio, TV, Outdoor
Publicity, Electronic Animation Display & Van Publicity of State
||Development and distribution of printed
literature on Oil Conservation.
||Publication and quarterly technical
journal such as Act Bulletin, Newsletter on Oil Conservation.
||Production of educational films, TV
advertisements, radio jingles and cinema slides on petroleum
||Participation in Exhibitions, Melas,
||Market survey on effectiveness of
TIPS FOR CONSERVATION
OF ENERGY IN INDUSTRIES
||Evaluation of fuel saving devices and
||Development of improved combustion
equipments and systems.
||Development of fuel-efficient
appliances, devices, equipments.
TIPS FOR THERMAL ENERGY CONSERVATION
||Undertake regular energy audits.
||Plug all oil leakage. Leakage of one
drop of oil per second amounts to a loss of over 2000 litres / year.
||Filter oil in stages. Impurities in oil
||Pre-heat oil. For proper combustion, oil
should be at right viscosity at the burner tip. Provide adequate
||Incomplete combustion leads
to wastage of fuel. Observe the colour of smoke emitted from chimney.
Black smoke indicates improper combustion and fuel wastage. White smoke
indicates excess air & hence loss of heat. Hazy brown smoke
indicates proper combustion.
||Use of Low air pressure “film burners”
helps save oil upto 15%in furnaces.
||Recover & utilize waste
heat from furnace flue gases for preheating of combustion air. Every
21°C rise in combustion air temperature results in 1% fuel oil
||Control excess air in
furnaces. A 10% drop in excess air amounts to1% saving of fuel in
furnaces. For an annual consumption of 3000 kl of furnace oil, this
means a saving of Rs.3 Lakhs. (Cost of furnace oil-Rs.10 per litre)
||Reduce heat losses through
furnace openings. Observations shows that a furnace operating at a
temperature of 1000° C having an open door (1500mmx750mm) results
fuel loss of 10lit/hr. For a 4000 hrs. furnace operation this
translates into a loss of approx. Rs.4 lakhs per year.
||Improve insulation if the
surface temperature exceeds 20 °C above ambient. Studies reveal
heat loss from a furnace wall 115mm thick at 650°C amounting to
Kcal/m²/hr can be cut down to 850 kcal/m²/hr by using 65 mm
insulation on the 115 mm wall.
|| Proper design of lids of melting
furnaces and training of operators to close lids reduces losses by
10-20% in foundries.
||Remove soot deposits when
flue gas temperature rises 40°C above the normal. A coating of 3 mm
thick soot on the heat transfer surface causes an increase in fuel
consumption up to 2.5%.
||Recover heat from steam
condentsate. For every 6°C rise in boiler feed water temperature
through condentsate return, there is 1% saving in fuel.
|| Improve boiler efficiency.
Boilers should be monitored for flue gas losses, radiation losses,
incomplete combustion, blow down losses, excess air etc. Proper control
can decrease the consumption upto 20%.
|| Use only treated water in boilers. A
scale formation of 1mm thickness on the waterside increases fuel
consumption by 5-8%.
||Stop steam leakage. Steam
leakage from a 3 mm –diameter hole on a pipeline carrying steam at 7
kg/cm² wastes 32 kl of fuel oil per year amounting to a loss of
||Maintain steam pipe
insulation. It has been estimated that a bare steam pipe, 150 mm in
diameter and 100 m in length, carrying saturated steam at 8 kg/cm²
wastes 25 kl of furnace oil in a year amounting to an annual loss of
TIPS FOR ELECTRICAL
||Maintain diesel engines regularly.
||A poorly maintained injection pump
increases fuel consumption by 4 gm / kWh.
||A faulty nozzle increases fuel
consumption by 2gm/kWh.
||Blocked filters increases fuel
consumption by 2 gm/kWh.
||A continuously running DG
set can generate 0.5Ton/ Hr of steam at 10 to 12 bar from the residual
heat of the engine exhaust per MW of the generator capacity.
||Measure fuel consumption per kWh of
electricity generated regularly. Take corrective action in case this
shows a rising trend.
||Improve power factor by installing
capacitors to reduce KVA demand charges and also line losses within
||Improvement of power factor
from 0.85 to 0.96 will give 11.5% reduction of peak KVA and 21.6%
reduction in peak losses. This corresponds to 14.5% reduction in
average losses for a load factor of 0.8.
|| Avoid repeated rewinding of
motors. Observations show that rewound motors practically have an
efficiency loss of upto 5%. This is mainly due to increase in no load
losses. Hence use such rewound motors on low duty cycle applications
||Use of variable frequency
drives, slip power recovery systems and fluid couplings for variable
speed applications such as fans, pumps etc. helps in minimizing
||Use of electronic ballast in place of
conventional choke saves energy upto 20%.
||Use of CFL lamp in place of GLS lamp can
save energy upto 70%.
||Clean the lamps & fixtures
regularly. Illumination levels fall by 20-30% due to collection of dust.
||Use of 36W tube light instead of 40 W
tube lights saves electricity by 8 to 10%.
||Use of sodium vapour lamps for area
lighting in place of Mercury vapour lamps saves electricity upto 40%.
REFRIGERATION & AIR
|| Compressed air is very
energy intensive. Only 5% of electrical energy is converted to useful
energy. Use of compressed air for cleaning is rarely justified.
||Ensure low temperature of inlet air.
Increase in inlet air temperature by 3°C increases power
consumption by 1%.
||It should be examined
whether air at lower pressure can be used in the process. Reduction in
discharge pressure by 10% saves energy consumption upto 5%.
||A leakage from a ½” dia hole from
a compressed air line working at a pressure of 7 kg / cm² can
drain almost Rs.2500 per day.
||Air output of compressors
per unit of electricity input must be measured at regular intervals.
Efficiency of compressors tends to deteriorate with time.
||Use of double doors,
automatic door closers, air curtains, double glazed windows, polyester
sun films etc. reduces heat ingress and air-conditioning load of
||Maintain condensers for
proper heat exchange. A 5°C decrease in evaporator temperature
increases the specific power consumption by 15%.
||Utilization of air
conditioned/refrigerated space should be examined and efforts made to
reduce cooling load as far as possible.
||Utilize waste heat of excess
steam of flue gases to change over from gas compression systems to
absorption chilling systems and save energy costs in the range of
||Specific power consumption
of compressors should be measured at regular intervals. The most
efficient compressors to be used for continuous duty and others on
||Replacement of inefficient
aluminium or fabricated steel fans by moulded FRP fans with aerofoil
designs results in electricity savings in the range of 15-40%.
||A study on a typical 20 ft.
dia fan revealed that replacing wooden blade drift eliminators with
newly developed cellular PVC drift eliminators reduces the drift losses
from 0.01-0.02% with a fan power energy saving of 10%.
||Install automatic ON-OFF switching of
cooling tower fans and save upto 40% on electricity costs.
||Use of PVC fills in place of wooden bars
results in a saving in pumping power of upto 20%.
||Improper selection of pumps
can lead to large wastage of energy. A pump with 85% efficiency at
rated flow may have only 65% efficiency at half the flow.
||Use of throttling valves
instead of variable speed drives to change flow of fluids is a wasteful
practice. Throttling can cause wastage of power to the tune of 50 to
||It is advisable to use a
number of pumps in series and parallel to cope with variations in
operating conditions by switching on or off pumps rather than running
one large with partial load.
||Drive transmission between pumps &
motors is very important. Loose belts can cause energy loss upto 15-20%.
||Modern synthetic flat belts in place of
conventional V-belts can save 5% to 10% of energy.
||Properly organized maintenance is very
important. Efficiency of worn out pumps can drop by 10-15% unless
||Energy Auditors empanelment scheme
||Energy Audit subsidy scheme
||Soft loan for purchase of energy audit
equipments & instruments
Besides these, PCRA also conducts Energy audits, Fuel Oil diagnostic
studies, Studies in small scale industries, Follow-up’s; Organizes
technical meets, Consumer meets, Seminars, Institutional training
programmes, Workshops, Clinics; helps in organizing Action Group
meetings and puts up stalls in exhibitions on conservation of petroleum